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Welcome to our Glossary.

Here you can find the meaning of words and expressions commonly used by computer-users.

Use the query form below to enter a word or part of a word you are looking for. Click the "Search" button to start the search.

Search for: Click here to start the search

You can also take a look at all the words starting with a particular character, select one below:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

We are looking for more words here, so please mail me any words you don't know and I'll try to find out what they mean. Or send me words you do know and their meaning, so we can add them too and get an even better glossary (either in Dutch or English is fine).

Words in our glossary starting with "N" ...

Glossary ...


n-Tuple
This is a mathematical term for a finite sequence of n terms. For example, the set {1, 2, 3, 4} is a 4-tuple. The set {Frank, Jane, Ed} is a 3-tuple. Any time there is a list of n things in a certain order, you can think of it as an n-tuple.

N-Way
A method of multiprocessing where each processor runs separate tasks with no special programming. This is different from SMP where one task can run across several processors, and all processors must act together, requiring special programming to speed up specific tasks. The "N" stands for a number greater than 1, where a system with 2 microprocessors would be a 2-Way system, and so on.

Nagware
This is shareware that has screens that pop up and require you to press a button, or wait an amount of time. These nag screens go away after you pay for the software and enter a registration code.

NAK (Negative AcKnowledgment)
This is the opposite of ACK. NAK is a slang term that means that you disagree or do not acknowledge something. This also refers to the 21st ASCII character.

Name Resolution
Name resolution is the proces where Computer or Servername is being matched with an IP-address. For example: When entering http://www.weethet.nl, the DNS (or WINS) has to determine which IP-address this website has in order to reach it.

Nanometer
This is one billionth of a meter or 1/1000000000 meters. See also Micron.

Nanosecond (ns)
This is one billionth of a second. Used most often to measure the speed of memory.

Nanotechnology
The purposeful manipulation of matter at the atomic level to achieve a defined goal.

Napster
This is the most famous file swapping utility / company. The Napster client allows you to connect to Napster servers and download MP3 files or allow your own MP3 files to be downloaded by others. The popularity of Napster erupted into lawsuits brought by the RIAA and various recording artists. Napster - and look-a-likes - are the easiest way to exchange and copy music, movies and programfiles.

Narrow SCSI
This is the original form of SCSI, using 50 pins, and tranmitting data at 5MBps. See also Wide SCSI. Drives and adapters that support Narrow SCSI usually have an "N" in the part number.

NAS (Network Attached Storage)
This refers to the use of specialized devices that function simply as hard drives connected to a network. NAS devices typically consist of a one or more hard drives in a housing that contains a simple operating system and a network connection. The use of NAS devices allows for cheaper and more easily expandable storage without requiring more complex, and expensive multi-purpose servers to do the work of delivering files to network users.

NAT
Network Address Translator - you may connect the Internet to the Internet by means of a single IP address and the computers inside of the network will use the Internet as if they were connected directly to the Internet (certain limitations applies). The

NAT (Network Address Translation)
This is a method that many Routers/ISPs use to extend their IP addressing to support more addresses than they own. The interior network uses one adressing scheme, and the exterior network uses the standard IPv4 Internet addressing. NAT devices can be routers, firewalls or proxy-servers. To program a NAT device, you must supply translation rules for how interior IP addresses are displayed to the outside world. You could, for example, set your firewall to act as if all traffic coming from inside your corporate network was coming from the Firewall's IP address.

Natural language
This refers to a human language as opposed to a computer language.

NC
Network Computer. Computer optimized for network applications. For example, it has no harddisk and makes it therefor cheaper to produce. Sun came up with this idea - it has not been a success so far.

NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)
This spec was designed by Microsoft to allow multiple protocols to easily communicate with Network Interface Cards (NICs) without knowing anything about those cards. In theory, you just have to install the NDIS driver for the particular NIC and you can bind multiple protocols to it. Previously, you had to unload one protocol stack to load another. NDIS allows multiple stacks on the same card.

Nerd
This is a term coined in the 80's to describe intelligent but socially inept people. It has fallen out of favor somewhat replaced by geek as a more up to date term for computer fanatics.

Nero
Commonly refers to the CD-writer application called 'Nero burning ROM' by Ahead. This is one of the most stable and versatile CD-writer applications I have seen so far. For copying protected CD's however, consider using CloneCD.

NetBEUI (Net BIOS Extended User Interface)
Old Microsoft protocol for network communications, basically intended for file sharing over a network.

NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
This is a transport protocol developed by IBM in 1985 for small and medium networks. It is the underlying foundation of NetBIOS. NetBEUI today can be compared to IPX/SPX and TCP/IP. NetBEUI is efficient for small workgroups, but is not routable, and is clogging the network with packets if you have more than 20 machines.

Netiquette (Internet Etiquette)
There is an informal code of conduct that most people follow on the Internet. Usually, people that break the code are the victims of flame e-mails or communications. Netiquette includes not sending e-mail or messages in ALL CAPS or even asking repetitive questions in forums that have FAQs posted. Sending spam is also a violation of netiquette. You're not obligated to follow proper netiquette, but you may have an easier time communicating with others over the Internet if you do.

NetWare
This is a network operating system developed by Novell. NetWare initially used only the IPX / SPX networking protocol and popularized the protocol. Version 4 added TCP/IP support by default.

Network
A group of interconnected computers. The computers must be capable of transferring data to form a true network--you can't just weld a bunch of computers together.

Network neighbourhood
Part of the Windows Operating System to browse the network.

Network subnet mask
Network (subnet) mask is used to group IP addresses together. There is a group of addresses assigned to each network segment. For example, the mask 255.255.255.0 groups together 254 IP addresses. If we have ip address 194.196.16.0 then the addresses 192.1

Newsbin Pro
Newsbin Pro is a software application that assists you in reading usenet newsgroups. It helps you in downloading, encoding, and assembling files (for large file downloads like movies). For more details see the Newsbin Pro website: http://www.newsbin.com/

Newsgroups
See Usenet newsgroups.

NFS (Network File System)
This is a type of distributed file system that allows NFS servers to give access to their local file system to NFS clients over a network using TCP/IP. The NFS standard was originally created by Sun Microsystems.

Nibble
Data size unit equal to 4 bits.

NIC (Network Interface Card)
Basically the networkcard found in your PC or laptop.

Nigerian Scam
See Advance-fee fraud.

NLX
This is a form factor similar to ATX. The difference is that NLX machines contain a riser card that the other expansion cards are plugged into. This allows for a shorter desktop case. NLX replaced LPX as a standard low profile form factor.

NMT
Nordic Mobile Telephone. Analog cellulair system for mobile phones. In most countries this has been replaced by GSM.

NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
This is the protocol that defines communications methods between news servers and news clients. NNTP communications use TCP/IP port 119. The Usenet newsgroups are based on this protocol.

Node
This refers to one computer / machine or address on a network. If you managed a network with 10 printers, 50 servers and 150 client machines, you could say you managed a network with 210 nodes.

Non-breaking space ( )
This is an HTML tag that is used to place a space in HTML text. It is useful as multiple regular spaces between words are treated as single spaces in HTML, making positioning of text difficult at times without a non-breaking space. Non-Breaking Space

Non-interlaced
This refers to a graphic image that is not interlaced. See interlaced.

Non-parity
This means without parity. Most often it is used to describe memory that does not have extra capacity available to check memory parity and report memory errors. See parity.

Normal SCSI
A common misnomer for Narrow SCSI.

Normalize
This is a verb that is used to describe what can be done to data to remove useless or extraneous entries. For example, if you set up a survey with choices A, B and No Response and then wanted to say the % of respondents that picked A or B, you could cut out the "No Responses" and thus, normalize the data. Another example would be changing the loudness of an MP3 file by analyzing the file for the loudest part, and then setting the loudness of the entire file to a percentage of that. That way, if you are putting together a file from many sources, you get a more uniform loudness.

Northbridge
This is part of a chipset in a PC that controls communications between system memory, the processor, external cache, and the AGP bus. See also southbridge. You must pair a northbridge chip with a southbridge chip to make a usable chipset.

NOS (Network Operating System)
This is an operating system designed to run across a network. It refers to the operating system that runs on a server, not the client.

Not
This is an operation that can be executed on a binary string. It returns the opposite of that string. (NOT 1) = 0, (NOT 0) = 1. Thus, (NOT 0011) = 1100.

Notebook computer
A computer the size of a notebook. Usually smaller and lighter than a laptop.

NT1-box
Connection between the cable that is lead into your home and ISDN equipment. Used in Europe (Nerherlands).

NTFS (NT File System)
This is the alternative file allocation system available with the Windows NT operating system. It allows for larger disk drives with smaller cluster sizes, as well as a performance increase and more robust security.

NTLDR
Short for NT Loader, a program loaded from the hard drive boot sector that displays the Microsoft Windows NT startup menu and helps Windows NT load. Often a user will see the message "NTLDR is Missing" after attempting to install Windows 2000 or Windows XP, or upgrade a Windows 95-based or Windows 98-based computer to Windows 2000 or Windows XP. The message appears after the first reboot. This occurs only if Windows 95 or 98 has been installed on a drive with the FAT32 file system.

NTP (Network Time Protocol)
This is a protocol running over TCP/IP port 123 that is designed to synchronize clocks on servers. You can have NTP servers and NTP clients. Clients receive time data from the NTP server, and can adjust their clocks as necessary.

NTSC (National Television Standards Committee)
This is a group that is responsible for setting the standard for broadcast and reception of television signals in the United States and Japan. The original NTSC standards were set in 1953 and call for 525 horizontal lines of resolution, interlaced scanning and a 60Hz refresh rate. NTSC is also called "Never The Same Color" due to it's problems with particular colors.

Null modem
There really is no "null modem" per se, but usually a null modem cable. This is a cable that connects two computers together via serial port and allows them to communicate. Some hardware manufacturers of network hardware, such as hubs and routers, include serial ports for programming their devices. You use a null modem cable to communicate with these devices. It's basically a modem cable with a couple of connections reversed.

NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM)
A small amount of RAM that stores information even after you turn off your computer. Used in modems (for storing your settings) and in hardware keys for protecting software.

NZB file
NewZBin usenet file. Contains list of usenet groups. This file can be opened with some of the better newsgroup reader applications. See also: http://www.newzbin.com/


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