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Welcome to our Glossary.
Here you can find the meaning of words and
expressions commonly used by computer-users.
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Words in our glossary starting with "I" ...
This is Sony's name for the IEEE 1394 FireWire interface.
This is a popular service developed by NTT DoCoMo, a Japanese mobile phone company. It allows cellphones to connect to the Internet by using packet-based communications.
This abbreviation refers to any operation in a computer where data is transferred in or out of the computer.
IA-32 (Intel Architecture - 32 bit)
This is Intel's 32-bit instruction architecture that runs on their 386, 486, en Pentium-serie (80586) chips.
IA-64 (Intel Architecture - 64 bit)
This is Intel's 64-bit instruction architecture that on next generation CPU's like the Merced.
IANAL (I Am Not A Lawyer)
You may see this abbreviation used in message rooms or chat rooms when people attempt to interpret a situation legally, but are not actually lawyers.
Integrated Circuit. Populary called a "chip".
Internet Control Message Protocol uses datagrams to report errors in transmission between the host and gateway.
This is a type of denial of service attack that sends large amounts of (or just over-sized) ICMP packets to a machine in order to attempt to crash the TCP/IP stack on the machine, and cause it to stop responding to TCP/IP requests.
This is a graphic, usually a small one, that represents something, usually a file on the hard drive. Icons can also represent directories, folders, or devices. In a GUI environment, icons can represent just about everything.
ICQ (I Seek You)
This was one of the first and most popular instant messaging clients. It was developed by Mirabilis, who was later purchased by AOL. An easier to use alternative is for example the Yahoo! Messenger.
Information and Communication Technology. A collectionname for telecommunicatie, computer-technologie, Informatie Technologie (IT) and media (video, TV).
IDentity / IDentification.
ID10T (ID Ten T) Error is a term often used by tech support operators and computer experts to describe a problem that is due to the users ignorance instead of a software or hardware malfunction. It is a masked jab at the user: when ID-Ten-T is spelled out it becomes ID10T ... for >idiot<.
IDE (Integrated Development Environment)
A development environment combining programming language, editor, compiler, etc. into one single tool.
IDE (Integrated Device Electronics)
This is the standard hard drive interface for PCs. You can connect a maximum of two hard drives to an IDE connection or channel. See also EIDE, ATA and ATAPI.
Waiting or doing nothing.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Institute that registers standards and norms for computer-communication.
The specification of a wireless LAN standard developed by the IEEE committee in order to specify an "over the air" interface between a wireless client and a base station or Access Point, as well as among wireless clients.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
This is an international group open to the public, made up of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers concerned with the evolution of Internet architecture. The IETF is perhaps most famous for having control of which documents become RFC documents and define interoperability standards or suggested methods of practice for the Internet.
IIS (Internet Information Services)
Successor of PWS - a small webserver (HTTP Daemon) - that comes with particular Windows versions.
Within the context of a computer program, this refers to any operation that attempts to access an area of data or perform an instruction that is not within the rules of the computer architecture or computer programming language.
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
This is a standard for retrieving mail that is more advanced than POP3 in that you can get your mail. In addition an IMAP client can do more advanced operations than POP3 when retrieving mail from an IMAP server, such as screening the subject lines before downloading mails.
IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)is a 15 digit Code used to uniquely identify the cellphone equipment (GSM, etc network).
IMHO (In My Humble Opinion)
Online speak for "In My Humble Opinion"
This is a measure of resistance to electrical current flow when a voltage is moved across it. Impedance is measured in ohms and is the ratio of voltage to the flow of current allowed.
This refers to the process of pulling data into a program. Normally, it refers to taking a plain text file and pulling it into a database format so that you can work with it using a database program. For example, you call a company you need some data from and ask them to send you some data to add to your database. They send the data as a text file and you import it into your database. Now, you can run queries on the data in your database program.
When a user looks at a page on the World Wide Web, that visit is counted as one impression regardless of how many images are on that page. See also "Hit".
This is a method of archiving data. Basically, during an incremental backup, all data that has changed since the last full backup will be archived. Data that has not changed will not be backed up.
This is a standard created by Intel and other server manufacturers to link servers and network devices externally at high speeds. It should scale as high at 6.0GB/second, but initially will run at 2.5Gbits/second (0.3GB/second).
Light with a very low frequency, invisable for the human eye. Often used for wireless communcations like the remote control of your TV-set.
This is a form of radiation that has a wavelength above that of visible light and below that of microwaves. Infrared radiation has wavelengths between 750 and 100,000 nanometers. Infrared sensors are used in night-vision goggles, remote controls and sensors. As well, infrared light can be used to send signals wirelessly back and forth between computing devices, but is limited to short line of site communications.
The next generation of dot matrix printers. It uses a head that sprays tiny droplets of ink onto print material. There are three major benefits to this method: 1) it is quieter than standard dot matrix printers, 2) it is able to make smaller dots to make print look better, and 3) since the ink is in liquid form, it mixes better when printing in color. On the down side, since they do not print by impact, they cannot print carbon copies.
Identifing yourself to a computer in order to get access to this computer and/or network.
Basically anything you enter into your computer, either by mouse, keyboard, joystick, etc.
The simplest direction that you can give to a processor in machine language. Programs are made up of these. An example of what a single instruction would do is incrementing a piece of data by one, or clearing a piece of data out of a register. Instruction is often wrongfully used when refering to higher programming languages like Pascal and C.
Instruction Decode Unit
This is the part of a microprocessor pipeline that decodes instructions that are sent to the micrprocessor. It can decode and optimize the order of instructions before it sends them to the execution unit to actually be run.
Int 13h (Interrupt 13h)
This refers to an interrupt that allows for identification of a hard drive and transfer of data through the ATA / IDE interface. Limitations in the addressing capabilities of Int 13 have caused many problems recognizing hard drives as they get larger.
An adapter between two different standards, either fysical (hardware) or in software.
Interlaced means that the graphic data is split (usually into two parts - from: to lace) and is displayed alternately one half and one half. So for video output, if you have 480 pixel rows shown vertically, an interlaced image will show 240 pixel rows (every other pixel row) at once. It will alternate fast enough that the image looks whole and complete. This is a trick used to increase resolution. However, it makes text and small shapes shimmer in a disturbing way.
This typically is the numbering scheme of sectors of data on hard drives. With an interleave of 1, sectors are numbered sequentially. With an interleave of 2, sequential data is stored on every second sector, and so forth. The reason for interleaves higher than 1 is that hard drives cannot always keep up with the spin speed of the disk, and sometimes need a break before getting to the next region of data. For example, if the data was listed as 11111 xxxxx 22222 yyyyy (interleave of 2) - then while the hard drive spins over xxxxx, it can take some time and get ready to start reading 22222. If a hard drive or disk media is fast enough to have an interleave of 1, then data is simply put sequentially onto the media.
Internet by cable
Internet access by means of cable-TV. Besides the regular TV-shows, additional Internet data is put on the cable-TV infrastructure.
A Web advertisement that pops up in between the viewing of Web pages. See also superstitial ads.
Local network of computers using TCP/IP as the standard communications protocol. Usually an Intranet features some sort of HTML content that you can use a browser to look at. Think of it as a mini, private Internet.
Internet Protocol. A communication protocol, used for several networking types. IP is basically the core of the entire internet.
IP (Intellectual Property)
This refers to any knowledge or idea "owned" by a person, entity or company. Intellectual property refers for example to music, movies, software, hardware designs, art, etc. and is usually protected by law from copying (copyright).
IP Header Compression (IPHC)
Refers to the capability to enable compression over TCP/IP packets (in most variants, UDP/IP is not supported for compression) for both IPv4 and IPv6. In the TCP/IP header, it is indicated if datagrams and/or packets are compressed or not. Compressed packets makes more efficient use of the available bandwidth. You could see it as if the packages are "zipped" and are much smaller than the uncompressed counter part.
Internet Protocol Address. Unique number for your PC in a IP-based network so your computer can be identified. For the Internet most of the time your ISP assigns you a temporary IP-address.
IPO (Initial Public Offering)
When a private company plans to go public (allow their stock to be traded to the public) they file for an initial public offering with the Security and Exchange Commission. Once the proper forms are filed, and proper requirements met, the private company agrees to offer a percentage of their company to the public in the form of stock shares and sets an initial sale price for their shares. The goal of an IPO is to raise a specific amount of money for the company to use.
This is the IETF standard "secure IP" transport. Typically, IPSEC is used in branch-VPN tunnels between routed LAN segments, but it's destined to become the method for securing IP traffic over IPv6.
IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4)
This is an outdated version of the IP protocol that is still in use on the Internet. It uses a 32-bit addressing scheme, represented by 4 8-bit (0-255) numbers separated by periods, such as : 220.127.116.11 The addressing scheme allows for a maximum of about 4.3 billion numbers (256*256*256*256). This gets to be a problem as more and more devices are connected to the Internet. ISP's have taken to using Network Address Translation to get around the problem for now, but IPv6 is the ultimate solution.
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6)
Also know as "IP next generation"; a newer version of IP, which allows not only data but also telephony and video (time critical) over the Internet. IPv6 will also offer a solution for the current shortage of IP-addresses. IPv6 uses a 128-bit addressing scheme. See also IPv4.
Network transport protocol between two network stations, where SPX is a superset of IPX. Originated from the Novell Netware networks.
1) Integrated Quality Management System,
2) Intelligent QoS (Quality of Service) Management Suite (Cisco)
IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
The first of the chat rooms, or networks of computers that host this chatting protocol. There are several networks of these computers--the most popular is Efnet. There are thousands of channels (or rooms) and hundreds of thousands of people within. There is a channel for any interest you could have--it is simply a matter of finding the name. You need to use an IRC client to get to them, but as long as you have an Internet connection, you can get hooked in. If you need help, visit IRCHelp
IrDa (InfraRed Data Association)
These people developed the IrDa port standard that transfers data through the use of infrared light. IrDa is often used for data transfer from a laptop to for example a printer or PDA that also has an IrDa port.
IrLAP (Infrared Link Access Protocol)
The IrDA has defined this protocol as a means of communication between serial Infrared devices.
IRQ (Interrupt request)
This is a gateway for devices to request time from the processor to do their jobs. For instance, every time you hit a key on your keyboard an interrupt is generated on the keyboard IRQ. This is mainly only a concern for PC users since only in the crappy PC hardware the amount of available is very limited and cause for conflicts and errors.
IS (Information Services)
This refers to the field of computer technology but has been replaced by the newer and sexier term, IS/IT or IT. IS is also used abraviation of Information Systems. See also IT and IS/IT.
IS/IT (Information Services and Technology)
See IS and IT.
Abbreviation for Internet Security and Acceleration.
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)
Definition of an old databus in your PC for CP-cars. 8- or 16-bits only. The ISA bus uses a 8Mhz bandwidth, which is pretty limited for now-a-days applications.
ISAPI (Internet Server API)
This is an API proposed by Microsoft to replace CGI. Programs written to ISAPI are compiled as DLLs and stored in memory so they can be run faster than CGI scripts.
Integrated Services Digital Network. A standard digital telecommunication-technique used for telephony and data. ISDN uses 64 Kbit/sec data channels or multiples of that. The most common standards in ISDN are BRA and PRA . BRA has two B-channels, for example one for voice and one for faxing simultaniously. PRA issues 30 B-channels, often used for connecting to PBX at the office.
Digital dapater for your PC that acts as a normal modem, specifically for ISDN designed.
ISO (International Standards Organization)
These folk create standards for everything, from cleanliness to file formats.
This is a certification granted to companies confirming that they work accoriding to particular quality rules. It specifies that they have properly recorded all of their procedures and they meet with certain specifications.
Internet Service Provider. A company or organisation that offers access to the Internet. Often an ISP offers additional services like space for webpages, etc. Examples of well known ISP's: AOL, Compuserve, etc.
ISV (Independent Software Vendor)
This term refers to a software company that creates software to run on a platform that it didn't create. For example, Microsoft is not an ISV because it owns its own OS. Often, the term refers to companies that write "valuable" software applications. OS makers will often give them sweet deals and help them distribute their software if they feel it benefits their OS.
IT (Information Technology)
This term refers to the field of work dealing with computers and technology. See alsi IS and IS/IT.
This is a programming term. It refers to a process that can be described by a fixed number of variables and a set of rules that describes what happens to those variables to achieve the next step of the process. If the process is interrupted, it can be continued if the state of all the variables is known. Contrast this to a recursive process. An iteration is a single step.
New name for CCITT. Worldwide organisation (based in Swiss) that defines and registers Telecommunicatie standards.
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